Database management is a method of managing the information that a company needs to run its business operations. It involves storing and distributing data it to users and applications and editing it as required and monitoring changes to data and stopping data corruption due unexpected failure. It is a component of the overall infrastructure of a company that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were developed in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They developed into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.
A database consists of a set of tables that arrange data according to some pattern, for example, one-to-many relationships. It uses the primary key to identify records and allows cross-references among tables. Each table has a collection of attributes, or fields, that represent facts about data entities. The most well-known type of database currently is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It is also easier to update data because it does not require the changing of many sections of the databases.
Most DBMSs can accommodate various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level focuses on cost, scalability and other operational issues, such as the layout of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables that are constructed using generic data to improve performance.